Что такое двигатель сонс
У чому різниця між двигунами SOHC і DOHC?
- Інші рубрики
- Усі автоновини
- Обираємо б/в авто
- Купуємо перший автомобіль
- Найбільш обговорювані автоновини
- Як продати автомобіль
- Досьє вживаних авто
- Що вибрати?
- Рейтинги автомобілів
Головним приводом системи газорозподілу сучасних ДВС служить розподільний вал, який може знаходитися в блоці або в головці блоку циліндрів (це найбільш поширена схема для сучасних моторів легкових авто). Розподільчий вал пов’язаний з колінчастим валом двигуна шляхом шестерень, ланцюгової передачі або ременя. Причому на 2 обороти колінчастого валу припадає 1 оборот розподільного вала. Ексцентрикові кулачки распредвала через коромисла, штовхачі, важелі або штанги пов’язані з клапанами кожного циліндра (впускними і випускними). Це забезпечує нормальну роботу двигуна внутрішнього згоряння.
To be clear… that’s over 3 miles of hose! 160 sticks of 11/2″ hose! At least 80 sticks of 1″ laterals! As many as 160 depending! And 80/160 gated wyes! Mountainous terrain means a helluva hike to make all those connections – out and back!!
Hauled by dozer or not… that’s an effing gargantuan effort.
Whoever the overhead was that approved this should get a raise and a gold star and maybe even promoted to USFS Chief. Too many times to count Ive been part of crews assigned to do similar tasks and when we run our request past our DIVS or whomever we are working for at the time for equipment assistance we are called “ lazy” or “its a waste of a resource to assist you guys” or the classic “ This 1-2 day project needs to last you the next 5 days because we dont want to demob you guys just yet so make it last”. So many people are finger pointing to the suits in DC about USFS problems but these problems runs downslope quite a ways from DC that need fixing. Kudos to these guys for an honest, solid shift and maximizing resource use!
Pretty creative thinking by some unskilled laborers, huh
Words are the Voice of the Heart!! “Never give up”…..Nice job!! Firefighters… Shalom
Three miles of hose? Sounds impossible to me but I’m just an engineer. I’m also almost totally ignorant of wildland firefighting. I would like to know some stuff about the process of laying and using hose in a situation like this. First how common is it to lay hose like this? Is this a very long example? How much hose is on each small spool and how much does each one weigh? How is the main length tapped when water is needed somewhere along the line? How would a line of this size be pressurized? What is the diameter of the line they’re laying?
Just idle curiosity.
I’m a wildland firefighter and an engineer. Feel free to email me @ firstname.lastname@example.org and I can answer most of your questions.
One section of inch and 1/2 hose which is 100 ft weighs roughly 30 lb. Altogether that hose will a wood way about seven to eight thousand pounds dry
Bill, when you said about drones carrying the fire hose,
were you referring to the Latvian company Aerones,
or something in development at another Wildfire Tech company ?
( Beware the Business Insider video ads ! )
I will guess that it works out to about 2000 pounds per mile of hose ?
That would make the hoses in the pictures about a 6000 pound load.
The aerone drones can handle 440 pounds. So 15 drones to carry all those fire hoses, 5 per ton.
Maybe each of the Aerone drones can carry about 1000 feet of hose.
Is that a 2 inch diameter hose ?
Several companies are working on drones that might in the next few years lead to commercial models that can carry hundreds of feet of hose. If there were a swarm of drones the task would get done even more quickly.
In October I wrote about some of the concepts being developed.
There are variations, but many hose lays on wildland fires are 1.5″ with a 1″ lateral every 100′. All lengths are 100′ long. CAL FIRE often does not put in laterals.
1.5″, synthetic jacket, lined, 15.9 lbs.
1.5″, cotton-synthetic jacket, lined, 26.9 lbs.
1″, synthetic jacket, lined, 9.4 lbs.
1″, cotton-synthetic jacket, lined, 22.4 lbs.
You also need gated wyes, reducers, and nozzles.
I did 35 fire seasons with CDF/Cal Fire.
We ALWAYS put in laterals. Always! 1 1/5″
hose, in packs, hauled up the line on the backs of FF’s, are preloaded with gated wyes. 1″ hose, in packs, is also delivered on the backs of FF’s and connected to the gated eyes. Fundamental, SOP.
One of the first wildfire BOOKS to employ a drone was RIVER OF FIRE, John Maclean’s book on northern California’s Rattlesnake Fire. Kari Greer did the photos for the book, and shot some of the images on the Mendocino with her drone.
(Not the cover images, though, those were her photos of the Thomas Fire in southern California.)
I’ve been preaching that this is the future of effective wildland firefighting for years. Take it to the next level with purpose-built, track-mounted hose carriers/booster pumps that can draw from the nearest water source to deliver larger amounts of water, faster, and more continuously and do it more safely and economically than any aerial firefighting effort. Are you listening, Caterpillar Corp? There’s money to be made here.
Don’t get me wrong, I have the highest respect for the pilots who risk their lives to fight fires from the air. I’m just saying there’s no need for wildland firefighting to remain stuck in a paradigm that is clearly failing as often as it succeeds. Aircraft have the advantage of being able to deliver in difficult-to-reach places, but they have the disadvantage of more often than not only being able to deliver enough to knock down hot spots, but not to decisively put a fire out on a broad front. Developing the right extended-range hose line technology has the potential to stop a fire cold. Review Sun Tzu’s principle of “economy of force” in The Art of War, and you’ll see that current firefighting methods are applying too little to win, for weeks or months on end.
Wow, I didn’t think anyone laid hose any more. My first season, our strike team laid 8K feet of hose, no dozer. Guess who got to “go back for more!” That’s one of the things that kept me in this job for 40+ years. Great work by all involved, you should be proud.
Our suppression drone (in development) could carry up to 500 feet of charged 2.5” hose, an suppress the fire through a 1.5” nozzle (up to 450Gpm).
We believe drone suppression technology, can help to relieve (free up) firefighters for more important tasks, in the suppression of wildfires and wildfires encroaching upon urban areas.
Are there any reports on whether the hose lay functioned?
These guys didn’t just haul in enough hose to do the lay – they also had to bring in additional hose to replace broken lengths. Guaranteed this would happen on a lay this long. We used to drop a roll of hose every few hundred feet just to have it available when a length ruptured. I hardly ever put in a lateral when making a lay. If we needed a lateral for mop-up later we clamped the coupling on each end and put a lateral in. Making the lay is only part of the work. After the fire the hose has to be picked up and brought out – always by hand to a place where it can be loaded on a truck. Then, it has to be washed, thoroughly drained, and inspected. If there is even a suspicion it’s been damaged it has to be pressure tested. Then it all has to be rolled and tied for storage until the next time. Making a lay on a direct attack is pure adrenalin rush. Picking up the hose afterward an doing all the other needed stuff is nothing but pure work. Those engine crews and dozer operator did one heck of a job putting in that lay.
A job well done! That’s a lot of hard work. Reminds me of a fire past…
In 1977, I was a member of ANF Engine 5-5 out of Big Tujunga Station. John Stevenson was the “Foreman”, Rocky Largent was the “TTO”. We were dispatched to the Hog fire on the KNF along with 4 other engines from the forest. We were told that it was the first engine strike team to be dispatched to “North Zone” (I have no documentation to prove this). John was the STL/E, he didn’t have his own rig, he just rode in the engine. Long story short we were assigned, along with 2 engines from the SNF (David Hill RIP, and Pat “Smiley” Tiereny were on those crews) to construct a staged hose lay from the Sawyers Bar road up Yellowjacket ridge. Stan Delong who developed the Ojai hose pack, designed and supervised the construction of the hose lay, he may have been the Sector Boss. I think it was 6 or 7 miles on the map, it took us a week. Everyone carried a canvas backpack of 1 1/2″ CJRL on their back and a pack of 1″ CJRL on their front, brass fittings included. In addition we took turns carrying pumps, gas etc… (Work like this is one of the reasons I have a bad back and knees). One day we got lucky and ran into some dozers. Rocky got the idea of tying the male end of the hose to the dozer, we connected hose as the dozer drug it up the hill. That was the easy day, but we still had to carry the pumps!
I have total respect for the firefighters on the line these days. You see fire behavior I never saw in 39 years of firefighting. I’m amazed there are not more injuries.
BTW… In the 60’s they experimented with laying hose with helicopters. It didn’t pan out because the hose always got hung up in the vegetation. If you can figure something else out, more power to ya…
Fun post. I have put in quite a few 15-20k ft. hoselays, but with twenty person crews. Caught a 15acre IA with my engine by putting in 3,500ft in 3hrs one night in steep country. My favorite method so far is by UTV where you can swing it. Put in 1,500ft by myself in about 45minutes that way! Sorry for the brag fest. Just wanted to share that we do stuff like this on the daily to general JohnQ,s out there. Hey, hey, hey! I love my occupation…Keep on rocking brothers and sisters. We got this!